CodeBork | Tales from the Codeface

The coding blog of Alastair Smith, a software developer based in Cambridge, UK. Interested in DevOps, Azure, Kubernetes, .NET Core, and VueJS.

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I’ve spent the last couple of days writing smoke tests for our application with Typescript and CasperJS, and hit quite a bit of pain along the way, so I thought I’d share what I’d learned.

CasperJS is a “navigation scripting and testing tool” that automates PhantomJS and SlimerJS, semi-headless implementations of Chrome and Firefox respectively. (Side note: If you can use ES7, take a look at ghostjs, which supports the new async/await syntax.)

The first thing was getting the development environment set up. I’d not done this for Typescript for a couple of years and a lot has changed in that time, so I decided to go from first principles. Most of the available tutorials say to install the tools globally with npm install -g, but I wanted to avoid having to install more things to our build agents. Here’s what I went with:

npm install --save-dev typescript@2.3.2
npm install --save-dev typings@2.1.1
npm install --save-dev casperjs@1.1.3
npm install --save-dev phantomjs-prebuilt@2.1.14

If you’ve not come across it, Typings is a neat command-line tool for managing Typescript definitions. It can source typings from a range of places, including DefinitelyTyped and npm. The next step was to install the typings for Casper and Phantom:

touch tsconfig.json
typings install dt~casperjs
typings install dt~phantomjs

This will set up typings in pwd so be sure you run this from the desired root of your Typescript project (this is where tsconfig.json lives). You’ll also need the full path to your node_modules\.bin on your PATH. (The dt~ prefix instructs Typings to obtain the type definitions from DefinitelyTyped as it defaults to npm.) You’ll now have a typings directory containing the type definitions and a typings.json file listing the installed typings. Note that Typings has modified the tsconfig.json to reference typings/index.d.ts: Typings controls this file to pull together all the type definitions it installs into a single place that can be easily referenced. (Side note: each imported type definition specifies its own index.d.ts which is pulled into Typing’s index.d.ts with a series of /// <reference /> statements. Neato.)

I also needed to configure my editor. VS Code is a great editor, and it comes with bundled support for Typescript, so it was a no-brainer to use this. The first thing I noticed was that it uses its bundled Typescript compiler, which was currently at version 2.2.2, but I had installed 2.3.2 (yesterday’s VS Code update bundles 2.3.2). Luckily, there’s great documentation on how to achieve this (TL;DR: set typescript.tsdk in your workspace settings to the appropriate path). There’s also a great tutorial on the VS Code site which details how to set up VS Code for a nicer editing experience, including hooking up the Typescript compiler to the Ctrl+Shift+B task runner command. I use a slightly different set of arguments to tsc to add compile-on-save support, so my tasks.json looks like this:

    // See
    // for the documentation about the tasks.json format
    "version": "0.1.0",
    "command": "tsc",
    "isShellCommand": true,
    "args": ["-w", "-p", "test/smoketests"],
    "showOutput": "silent",
    "isBackground": true,
    "problemMatcher": "$tsc-watch"

Great, we’re finally ready to go!

I started writing my Casper tests, following this excellent post on using the Page Object pattern with Casper. It was here that I hit my first issue: when running the tests, PhantomJS would complain that the exports variable could not be found. After a lot of fruitless searching through Stack Overflow and GitHub, I found that Typescript was outputting a line in my page object akin to Object.defineProperty(exports, /*..*/) and this was what was causing Phantom to baulk. I resolved this by down-grading to Typescript 2.1.4 instead, as this version was known to work from a previous project. Annoyingly, and as with a lot of the problems I’ve hit with Typescript and co. this week, I’m no longer able to reproduce the problem.

Another issue was in calling Casper’s evaluate() function. This can be a little tricky to understand as it passes a closure to PhantomJS to execute in the context of the current page’s DOM. It’s particularly useful in conjunction with the waitFor() function. I was using it to query a CSS selector (before I found the handy waitForSelector() function!), where the selector was an instance member of my page object. Something like this (line 18 is the key):

The more well-versed in Typescript and JavaScript will probably have identified that the closure can’t access the instance variable of the class, as (I think) this doesn’t refer to the class instance anymore, but (I think) the calling context of the lambda function. Pulling it out as a globally-defined constant works, of course, as does passing it as a parameter to the closure supplied in evaluate(). Of course the whole thing can be collapsed to the much more simple


so I’m only including this for posterity 😀

Now that these issues have been worked through, the stack is working quite nicely for me. There are some on-going problems with console output being dumped after casperjs test exits), but I suspect these are specific to the Windows console host. Bash on Ubuntu on Windows 10 works a little better — the console control sequences are more well-understood in this environment — but it seems as though the details of test output (including the PASS/FAIL status of each test) is lost somewhere. Hopefully these issues will be resolved in time.